Topics A to Z

As part of NEHA's continuos effort to provide convenient access to information and resources, we have gathered together for you the links in this section. Our mission is "to advance the environmental health and protection professional for the purpose of providing a healthful environment for all,” as well as to educate and inform those outside the profession.


Lake County, California, is in a high geothermal-activity area. Over the past 30 years, the city of Clearlake has reported health effects and building evacuations related to geothermal venting. Previous investigations in Clearlake revealed hydrogen sulfide at levels known to cause health effects and methane at levels that can cause explosion risks. The authors conducted an investigation in multiple cities and towns in Lake County to understand better the risk of geothermal venting to the community. They conducted household surveys and outdoor air sampling of hydrogen sulfide and methane and found community members were aware of geothermal venting and some expressed concerns. The authors did not, however, find hydrogen sulfide above the California Environmental Protection Agency air quality standard of 30 parts per billion over one hour or methane above explosive thresholds. The authors recommend improving risk communication, continuing to monitor geothermal gas effects on the community, and using community reports and complaints to monitor and document geothermal venting incidents.

December 2015
December 2015
78.5 | 14-21
Cindy H. Chiu, MPH, PhD, Matthew J. Lozier, MPH, PhD, Tesfaye Bayleyegn, MD, Karen Tait, MD


Often during an outbreak of foodborne illness, there are health officials who have data indicating that there is a risk prior to notifying the public. During the lag period between the first public health signal and some release of public information, there are decision makers who are weighing evidence with the impacts of going public. Multiple agencies and analysts have lamented that there is not a common playbook or decision tree for how public health agencies determine what information to release and when. Regularly, health authorities suggest that how and when public information is released is evaluated on a case-by-case basis without sharing the steps and criteria used to make decisions. Information provision on its own is not enough. Risk communication, to be effective and grounded in behavior theory, should provide control measure options for risk management decisions. There is no indication in the literature that consumers benefit from paternalistic protection decisions to guard against information overload. A review of the risk communication literature related to outbreaks, as well as case studies of actual incidents, are explored and a blueprint for health authorities to follow is provided.

March 2017
March 2017
79.7 | 8-14
Benjamin Chapman, PhD, Maria Sol Erdozaim, Douglas Powell, PhD

A Minnesota study found higher levels of ammonia and total organic carbon than expected in groundwater sources. During this session, we will identify the issues ammonia can cause in water distribution systems and develop a free ammonia management, disinfection, and/or nitrification control strategy to minimize undesirable consequences caused by these contaminants.

July 2015
David Schultz, PE
Potential CE Credits: 1.00

Book: HACCP for Processors: A Step-By-Step GuideFood safety is everyone’s concern—especially facilities that produce, manufacture, distribute, ship, or import food products. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles are required for many of these operations. HACCP for Processors: A Step-By-Step Guide provides you with the necessary knowledge for understanding, writing, and implementing a food safety management system based on HACCP principles. This risk based and proactive food safety management system was originally developed for NASA to ensure safe food for our astronauts. It is now an international standard for controlling foodborne risks. This comprehensive textbook is designed teach the principles of HACCP and also to be a valuable reference book for your food safety library. It can be used on its own or in conjunction with NEHA’s online HACCP course.



January 2011
Additional Topics A to Z: HACCP

Book: HACCP: Managing Food Safety Hazards at the Retail LevelNEHA’s economically priced HACCP training materials were created to meet the growing demands on the food service industry to look at risk factors affecting food safety. The HACCP approach to food safety addresses the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards through active managerial control within the retail establishment. HACCP: Managing Food Safety Hazards at the Retail Level will walk a food manager step-by-step through creating a workable HACCP plan, as well as prepare individuals for NEHA’s Certified HACCP Manager exam. This book is also a recommended study reference for NEHA's CP-FS exam. 

June 2009
Additional Topics A to Z: HACCP


Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants.

April 2016
April 2016
78.8 | 18-23
Anwesha Borthakur
Additional Topics A to Z: Sustainability

Article Abstract

Green building systems have proliferated recently, but studies are limited of associated health and housing outcomes. The authors measured self-reported resident physical and mental health, allergens, and building conditions at baseline and one-year follow-up in a low-income housing development being renovated in accordance with green healthy housing improvements (Enterprise Green Communities standards and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design [LEED] gold certification). Self-reported general health in adults significantly improved from 59% to 67% (p = .026), with large statistically significant improvements in water/dampness problems, cockroaches and rodents, and reduced pesticide use. Median cockroach (Bla g1) and mouse (Mus m1) allergen dust loadings showed large and statistically significant reductions from baseline to three months postintervention and were sustained at one year (both p < .05). Energy and water cost savings were 16% and 54%, respectively. Incorporating Enterprise Green Communities and LEED standards in low-income housing renovation improves health and housing conditions and can help to reduce disparities. All green housing standards should include health-related requirements.

March 2014
76.7 | 8-16
David E. Jacobs, PhD, CIH, Jill Breysse, MHS, CIH, Sherry L. Dixon, PhD, Susan Aceti, MSW
Additional Topics A to Z: Children's Environmental Health