Topics A to Z

As part of NEHA's continuos effort to provide convenient access to information and resources, we have gathered together for you the links in this section. Our mission is "to advance the environmental health and protection professional for the purpose of providing a healthful environment for all,” as well as to educate and inform those outside the profession.


The objective of this article was to examine the environmental health implications of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster from an all-hazards perspective. The authors performed a literature review that included Japanese and international nuclear guidance and policy, scientific papers, and reports on the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island disasters while also considering all-hazards preparedness rubrics in the U.S. The examination of the literature resulted in the following: a) the authors’ “All-Hazards Planning Reference Model” that distinguishes three planning categories—Disaster Trigger Event, Man-Made Hazards, and Vulnerability Factors; b) the generalization of their model to other countries; and c) advocacy for environmental health end fate to be considered in planning phases to minimize risk to environmental health. This article discusses inconsistencies in disaster planning and nomenclature existing in the studied materials and international guidance and proposes new opportunity for developing predisaster risk assessment, risk communication, and prevention capacity building.

July/August 2015
78.1 | 26-31
Eriko Sase, PhD, Christopher Eddy, MPH, REHS, RS, CP-FS
Additional Topics A to Z: Hazards

This session will immerse the learner in interactive training utilizing a computer based online course focusing on food allergens, an emerging issue in environmental health. The training will provide highly interactive activities and assessments to ensure the learner successfully meets the learning outcomes. Upon completion, the learner will implement and apply their learning while on inspections and will be able to provide workforce training via resources obtained through this session.

Presented at NEHA 2015 AEC

July 2015


The rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in Kentucky and the U.S. began to rise in the mid-20th century. Plausible mechanistic explanations exist for linkages between the development of NHL and exposures to specific chemicals. Several of these chemicals are present in sites within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Superfund program. This study investigated a possible association between residential proximity to Superfund sites in Kentucky and incidence of NHL over a period of 18 years. Cumulative incidence rates per 100,000 persons were calculated at the census tract level, within 5 km–10 km and <5 km from Superfund sites. Geographically weighted regression was necessary to create best-fitting models due to spatial autocorrelation and nonstationarity. Residential proximity to Superfund sites in Kentucky was associated with higher incidence of NHL; the average cumulative incidence of NHL per 100,000 decreased as the distance to the hazardous sites increased. This study confirmed previous research findings of an association between residential proximity to environmentally hazardous sites and the cumulative incidence rates of NHL. Future research should take into account the chemical profile of each site, to identify the most hazardous sites. Potential intervention strategies are presented based on the results of this study.

July 2017
July/August 2017
80.1 | 22-29
W. Brent Webber, DrPH, CIH, CSP, Environmental Health and Safety Division, University of Kentucky, Ramona Stone, MPH, PhD, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky
Additional Topics A to Z: Hazardous Materials

State health agencies often respond to requests for assistance from businesses, schools, the general public, and government agencies on a variety of issues related to poor indoor environmental quality (IEQ), often in the absence of authority and resources. During this session, we will discuss the implications and need for authority, federal and state resources available, and strategies for state and local health departments to partner with other entities to respond to IEQ complaints.

July 2015
Nancy Goff, MPH; Clifford Mitchell
Potential CE Credits: 1.00

How does a tourism-dependent community respond to an environmental pathogen found in its water? This session will introduce the basic ecology and pathogenicity of Legionella. A local engineer will share how a large hotel developed and implemented a waterborne pathogen control plan and the local health district will cover their approach to investigating single cases of Legionellosis. Detection and monitoring methods will also be addressed, including a rapid bacteria screening method which provides a means for risk assessment and outbreak mitigation without waiting for a bacterial culture. See if this integrated approach could be applied to address Legionella concerns in your community.

July 2015
Mark Bergtholdt, MPH, REHS/RS; Paul A. Carballosa; Lisa Rogers
Potential CE Credits: 1.50
Additional Topics A to Z: Pathogens and Outbreaks


The Food and Drug Administration publishes the Food Code to guide restaurant inspections. The most recent version proposes a three-tier system categorizing violations as priority, priority foundation, and core. This study used a scenario-based questionnaire to examine inspector perceptions and preferences for inspection formats. Results suggest that inspectors would be able to maintain consistent evaluations when changing to the three-tier system, although the classifying terms under the three-tier system were confusing. Additionally, inspectors were not very positive about the new system; they were concerned that the new system would not be easy to understand and use, inspections would take a longer time, it would not accurately reflect the amount of risk associated with violations, and it would not be easy for consumers and managers to understand and use. The results suggest the need for additional training for inspectors before adoption, especially on the rationale and benefits of changing to a three-tier system.

June 2017
June 2017
79.10 | 26-31
Jooho Kim, PhD, Jing Ma, PhD, Barbara Almanza, PhD, RD

Book: Installation of Wastewater Treatment SystemsThis manual is the definitive source for information on installing decentralized wastewater treatment systems. Developed by a team of experts, this manual provides installers with training materials geared specifically to address installation—one of the many vital aspects of programs for managing decentralized wastewater treatment systems. Installers, regulators, and designers of onsite wastewater treatment systems will gain a better understanding of the activities related to proper installation and startup to maximize system efficiency, longevity, and performance. This manual is a recommended study reference for NEHA’s Certified Installer of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (CIOWTS) credential.

June 2009
Additional Topics A to Z: Wastewater