Exposure Through Breastmilk or the Placental Barrier
Infants or developing fetuses be exposed through breastmilk or the placental barrier (respectively)
Because children are dependent on their mothers both in-utero and for sustenance in the form of breastmilk after birth, it's possible for the child to suffer harm because of actions or experiences of their mother.
This could include:
- Developmental difficulties from the mother smoking or being exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy
- Birth defects, premature births, stillbirths, and low birthweights as well as developmental problems later in life have been linked to prenatal exposure to certain chemicals