This presentation shares results of research conducted in various restaurants and markets of Lima, Peru. It describes the food safety regulation and inspection system in use and identifies some of the major variables and food safety risk factors at play. A brief comparison to the U.S. FDA Food Code is made, providing a discussion on possible approaches to remediation.
As part of NEHA's continuos effort to provide convenient access to information and resources, we have gathered together for you the links in this section. Our mission is "to advance the environmental health and protection professional for the purpose of providing a healthful environment for all,” as well as to educate and inform those outside the profession.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as environmental mycobacteria due to their ubiquitous nature, are opportunistic human pathogens of public health concern. They are the causative agent of lymphadenitis in children; pulmonary, skin, and soft tissue infections; and have been linked to Crohn’s disease. Human-to-human transmission is rare and as such it is essential to identify potential environmental sources and routes of exposure. This review explores studies written in English investigating the presence of NTM in pasteurized and unpasteurized milk over the last 20 years. Globally, it was demonstrated that NTM have been detected from milk products in Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Chile, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, UK, and U.S. We explored the relationships among the specific NTM species identified, pasteurized and unpasteurized milk, and different detection methods. Both experimental studies and detection from commercial milk suggests the NTM can survive the pasteurization process. Further research is required to explore the potential role of milk as a possible route of exposure to NTM and to identify potential management and control strategies.
80.9 | 24-31
A Review of Promising Multicomponent Environmental Child Obesity Prevention Intervention Strategies by the Children’s Healthy Living Program
Childhood obesity has increased rapidly over the last three decades in the U.S. Individual-level interventions targeting healthy eating and physical activity have not significantly impacted clinical measures of obesity in children. Focusing “upstream” on physical, social, cultural, political, and economic environments may be more effective. The purpose of this qualitative review is to analyze published environmental interventions that effectively prevented or reduced obesity in children ages 2–10 years by working within their family, school, and/or community environment to increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviors, or improve healthy diet. Through an electronic database search, 590 original articles were identified and 33 were read in full. Using Brennan and co-authors’ (2011) rating system, 18 were rated as effective intervention studies. This analysis showed that interventions targeting multiple environments (e.g., family, school, and community) show promise in reducing childhood obesity. Further research is needed to test interventions targeting multiple environments in different communities and populations.
79.3 | 18-26
Increasing road salt application has followed a trend of increasing chloride levels in shallow wells and a rise in chloride in the Illinois River in Peoria, IL. Much of the recharge area for the regions aquifer is located near major highways, intersections, and rural routes. During this session, we will identify the environmental health risks from increased chlorides, learn of recent developments from the snow and ice removal industry on reducing chloride contamination, and compare results of salt application from un-calibrated salt trucks with calibrated salt trucks.
A Step Towards Improving Food Safety in India: Determining Baseline Knowledge and Behaviors Among Restaurant Food Handlers in Chennai
With the establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and new food safety regulations, a precedent has been set to prevent foodborne illness in India. The objective of the authors’ study was to identify knowledge gaps among food handlers in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, to establish priorities for future intervention. A 44-question survey was administered to 156 food handlers at 36 restaurants in Chennai between April and June of 2011. The overall mean knowledge score was 49% and knowledge gaps related to hand hygiene, proper food cooking and holding temperatures, and cross contamination were identified. Food handlers with a Medical Fitness Certificate scored significantly higher than those without a certificate, after controlling for food safety training and level of education (p < .05). As the FSSAI standards now require a medical certificate for restaurant licensure and registration, consideration should be given to include an educational component to this certification with an explanation of expected food safety behavior.
78.6 | 18-25
The importance of clean food contact surfaces has been recognized; however, the importance of cleanliness on nonfood contact surfaces such as menus may be underestimated. The aim of the study described in this article was to determine the cleanliness of restaurant menus, evaluate typical cleaning methods used in a restaurant, and provide recommendations for improving menu cleanliness. The authors’ study used an adenosine triphosphate meter to assess the cleanliness of the menus. A pretest identified the most commonly touched areas of the menu by consumers. Based on the results of the pretest, menus were collected from casual-family dining restaurants and analyzed for cleanliness. Results suggested that menus should be cleaned after each shift and that menus distributed by the staff when guests are seated are cleaner than those kept on the table.
76.1 | 18-24
A Study of the Antimicrobial Resistance and Transfer of Resistance Among Organisms Isolated From Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaves in Three Localities in Southwest Nigeria
76.6 | 76–84
An Assessment of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With the Use of Water, Sand, and Chemicals in Shale Gas Production of the Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale
The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) has enabled a dramatic expansion of unconventional natural gas extraction in the U.S. While life cycle greenhouse gas (LC-GHG) emissions associated with HF have gained attention in recent years, little focus has been devoted to upstream LC-GHG impacts of HF natural gas (Clark, Burnham, Harto, & Horner, 2013; Verrastro, 2012). Focusing on 1,921 wells in Pennsylvania from 2012 to 2013, we used the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment model to assess LC-GHG emissions associated with production and transportation of chemicals and sand mining. Ton-miles from the transportation of sand and water were assessed with life cycle transportation emissions factors to generate LC-GHG emissions. LC-GHG emissions from upstream inputs assessed in this study equaled 1,374 tons of CO2e per well, but account for only 0.63% of the total LC-GHG emissions of HF natural gas. LC-GHG emissions from sand, water, and chemicals are quite small when compared with gas combustion, methane leakage, venting, and flaring from the other phases of the HF process.
79.4 | 8-15
An Estimate of the Economic Burden of Norovirus Disease Among School-Age Children in the United States (2009–2013)
The health burden and resultant economic burden of foodborne norovirus disease among school-age children in the U.S. is unknown but believed to be significant. The economic burden encompasses not only direct medical costs associated with medical care but also indirect costs such as loss of work days and direct nonmedical costs. National passive surveillance data from norovirus outbreaks spanning 2009–2013 were used to identify cases, health outcomes, interventions, and healthcare resource utilization among the school-age population. The cost of supportive care was $2,483,379, outpatient healthcare was $57,672, hospitalization was $48,670, and emergency care was $38,336. The cost of providing supportive care (direct nonmedical costs) was relatively low. When indirect costs were factored in, however, the total cost of care escalated, which illustrates the high burden of loss of productivity. It is important to incorporate the indirect and direct nonmedical costs of disease to more accurately characterize the total economic burden of a disease.
80.7 | 12-18