This cross-sectional survey was conducted to understand parents’ perceptions regarding air pollution and its effect on children’s respiratory health in Nanchang, China, to offer baseline information useful to the government of the People’s Republic of China. Data collected from 1,056 residents (response rate = 93.7%) was analyzed using descriptive analysis, chi-square test, nonparametric rank-sum test, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and linear trend test. The results showed that most parents would worry more about their children’s health if air quality became worse, especially in families with high education and income. The top three respiratory conditions associated with poor air quality among children were cough (90.5%), upper respiratory infection (72.9%), and bronchitis (47.2%). Parents believed motor vehicle emissions (95.9%), secondhand smoke (95.4%), and dust (92.9%) to be the risk factors largely responsible for respiratory illnesses among children. Furthermore, most respondents supported government intervention to improve air quality with several suggestions: controlling industrial pollution (69.9%), increasing public transportation and reducing private cars (51.0%), and controlling and reducing waste incineration (45.6%).