The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility or extent of asbestos pollution in small-scale preschools, which are asbestos-containing buildings (ACBs), and to provide management plans for them. Korea is legally managing preschools with a total ground area of 430 m2 or above as ACBs, but is not legally regulating preschools smaller than 430 m2 (small-scale preschools) that account for 90.4% of all preschools. Thus, this study selected 46 small-scale preschools in Seoul, collected airborne samples at 91 points, and analyzed the samples with phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The result by the ISO 10312 method satisfied the Korean Indoor Air Quality Control Act (≤0.01 fibers/cc) (International Organization for Standardization, 1995). The analysis result by the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act method was lower than the filter background level. There is a method to remove or eliminate asbestos, but this method increases the risk of exposure to airborne asbestos, so it seems better to effectively maintain and manage the buildings of small-scale preschools to prevent airborne asbestos.