Topics A to Z

As part of NEHA's continuos effort to provide convenient access to information and resources, we have gathered together for you the links in this section. Our mission is "to advance the environmental health and protection professional for the purpose of providing a healthful environment for all,” as well as to educate and inform those outside the profession.

This guest commentary examines a series of well-documented nosocomial viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, including the October 2014 Dallas Ebola index case, to provide guidance for future preparedness and response in the health care setting. Hazard vulnerability assessments, occupational safety, relevant and appropriate personal protective equipment, and biosurveillance topics are discussed through the all-hazards preparedness lens.

September 2015
September 2015
78.2 | 28-32
Christopher Eddy, MPH, REHS, RS, CP-FS, Eriko Sase, PhD
Additional Topics A to Z: Pathogens and Outbreaks

Article Abstract

To keep swimming pool water clean and clear, consumers purchase, transport, store, use, and dispose of large amounts of potentially hazardous chemicals. Data about incidents due to the use of these chemicals and the resultant public health impacts are limited. The authors analyzed pool chemical release data from 17 states that participated in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s chemical event surveillance system during 2001–2009. In 400 pool chemical incidents, 60% resulted in injuries. Of the 732 injured persons, 67% were members of the public and 50% were under 18 years old. Incidents occurred most frequently in private residences (39%), but incidents with the most injured persons (34%) occurred at recreational facilities. Human error (71.9%) was the most frequent primary contributing factor, followed by equipment failure (22.8%). Interventions designed to mitigate the public health impact associated with pool chemical releases should target both private pool owners and public pool operators. 

May 2014
76.9 | 10-15
Ayana R. Anderson, MPH, Wanda Lizak Welles, PhD, James Drew, Maureen F. Orr, MS
Additional Topics A to Z: Hazardous Materials

Abstract

This study evaluated whether a difference existed between one-hour and one-day notice on inspection announcements versus unannounced inspections on health inspection ratings of food establishments. Three hundred food establishments were randomly assigned into three sections of no announcement, one-hour announcement, or one-day announcement. Certified food inspectors performed routine inspections of these establishments for foodborne illness risk factors. Inspection results were analyzed using chi-square analysis. A significant interaction was found: those who had no notice were more likely to have an unsatisfactory outcome (4%) than establishments that had either one-hour or one-day notice (0%). One-hour notice did not result in a significant difference in outcome when compared with no notification. One-day notice did result in a significant difference in outcome when compared with no notification. This result suggests that one-hour notification is not a significant amount of time to impact the outcome of an inspection, but is sufficient to allow management to logistically prepare for an inspection and still maintain the objective of the inspection process.

January 2017
January/February 2017
79.6 | 14-18
Paschal Nwako, MPH, PhD, REHS, CHES, DAAS

The food truck phenomenon has gained national media attention with an estimated 20,000 plus trucks nationwide bringing in over $1.2 billion annually. Amid the frenzy is a host of unique challenges for food safety professionals. This session addresses many approaches to the operational obstacles associated with food trucks such as operating in a small space, reliance upon generators to keep food at correct temperatures, limited water supply, and their mobile nature. Be prepared to take away tips and tricks to use in your work to prevent foodborne illness with food truck operators.

July 2015
Robert Kramer, REHS/RS
Potential CE Credits: 1.00

Abstract

Following the “fetal origins of adult disease” hypothesis, environmental determinants of birth weight regained interest. The authors applied a detailed spatial-time exposure model for climatological factors thought to affect fetal growth: seasonality, temperature, and sunshine. Daily climatological data (29 stations) were linked to 1,460,401 term births with an individual exposure matrix for each pregnancy. Linear regression was utilized to determine effects of climatological factors on individual birth weight and existing spatial variations in birth weight. In the Netherlands substantial regional climatological differences exist. Summer was associated with significantly reduced birth weight (16–19 g). Minimum and maximum temperatures were significantly associated with increased and reduced birth weight, respectively. Spatial birth weight differences ranged from -11 to +25 g, with lowest birth weights in inland areas. The authors demonstrate birth weight to be associated with climatological factors; negative birth weight effects of maximum temperature exposure confirm results from animal studies. Consequently, a climate footprint is visible in the spatial birth weight differences.

December 2015
January/February 2016
Prepublished online December 2015. Final publication January/February 2016 (78.6). | 1-10
Jashvant Poeran, MD, PhD, Erwin Birnie, PhD, Eric A.P. Steegers, MD, PhD

Following the “fetal origins of adult disease” hypothesis, environmental determinants of birth weight regained interest. The authors applied a detailed spatial-time exposure model for climatological factors thought to affect fetal growth: seasonality, temperature, and sunshine. Daily climatological data (29 stations) were linked to 1,460,401 term births with an individual exposure matrix for each pregnancy. Linear regression was utilized to determine effects of climatological factors on individual birth weight and existing spatial variations in birth weight. In the Netherlands substantial regional climatological differences exist. Summer was associated with significantly reduced birth weight (16–19 g). Minimum and maximum temperatures were significantly associated with increased and reduced birth weight, respectively. Spatial birth weight differences ranged from -11 to +25 g, with lowest birth weights in inland areas. The authors demonstrate birth weight to be associated with climatological factors; negative birth weight effects of maximum temperature exposure confirm results from animal studies. Consequently, a climate footprint is visible in the spatial birth weight differences.

January 2016
January/February 2016
78.6 | 92-100
Jashvant Poeran, MD, PhD, Erwin Birnie, PhD, Eric A.P. Steegers, MD, PhD
Additional Topics A to Z: Children's Environmental Health

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