Topics A to Z

As part of NEHA's continuos effort to provide convenient access to information and resources, we have gathered together for you the links in this section. Our mission is "to advance the environmental health and protection professional for the purpose of providing a healthful environment for all,” as well as to educate and inform those outside the profession.

Emergency Public Health provides a unique and practical framework for disaster response planning at local, state, and national levels. This is the first book of its kind to systematically address the issues in a range of environmental public health emergencies brought on by natural calamity, terrorism, industrial accident, or infectious disease. It features historical perspectives on a public health crisis, an analysis of preparedness, and a practical, relevant case study on the emergency response. Study reference for NEHA’s REHS/RS exam.


568 pages / Paperback / Catalog #1121
Member: $96 / Nonmember: $101 

July 2011
G. Bobby Kapur, Jeffrey P. Smith
Additional Topics A to Z: Emergency Preparedness

Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants in water and, to date, cannot be removed as part of wastewater treatment options. So what can be done to mitigate their effects upon the environment, yet maintain their efficacy for human and animal use? In this session, we examine this topic from a lifecycle approach using hands-on demonstrations, and discuss several solutions and policies you can take home to mitigate and address these contaminants in your community.

July 2015
Julie Becker, MA, PhD, MPH
Potential CE Credits: 1.00

Updated and reviewed by leading experts in the field, this revised edition offers new coverage of industrial solid wastes utilization and disposal, the use of surveying in environmental engineering and land use planning, and environmental assessment. Stressing the practicality and appropriateness of treatment, the sixth edition provides realistic solutions for the practicing public health official or environmental engineer.

Additional Topics A to Z: Wastewater


Though physiological effects of exposure to airborne lead on cognitive function and crime have been discussed in literature, to date, no studies examined other outdoor or ambient air pollutants and their potential impact on reported crime. Data were collected through open public records provided by study location municipalities to assess the impact of outdoor air pollution on daily crime rates in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and Seattle. Poisson regression analyses were performed to examine associations between outdoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) including fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) respirable fractions, ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) with several types of crime along with weather variables known to correlate with air pollution concentrations and/or impact crime. Increased PM2.5 was associated with increases in assault, damage, and theft crimes. Pollutants known to cause irritation, like PM10 and O3, were associated with decreases in crime rates. Weather variables were also found to be associated with increases in crime rates when apparent temperature, cloud cover, visibility, and wind speed increased from the 25th to 75th percentile of measurements. Additional research to further understand potential relationships between outdoor air quality and crime is needed.

December 2017
December 2017
80.5 | 8-22
Ashley E.M. Mapou, MS, PhD, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers School of Public Health, Derek Shendell, MPH, DEnv, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers School of Public Health, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, MS, PhD, Department of Biostatistics, Rutgers School of Public Health, Jaime Madrigano, MPH, ScD, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers School of Public Health


In the U.S., 60% of norovirus outbreaks are attributed to long-term care facilities (LTCFs). A descriptive study of 26 LTCFs in South Carolina was conducted to determine the presence of environmental factors associated with transmission of human noroviruses. Sanitary conditions in one common area, one staff/visitor bathroom, and the main kitchen were assessed using two audit forms. While surfaces in all kitchens were in good sanitary condition, 23 LTCFs used quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers and three LTCFs used chlorine bleach for kitchen sanitization. All common areas were also clean and in good condition; however, 20 LTCFs had upholstered chairs, and five LTCFs had carpeted floors. Seven facilities used quaternary ammonium-based disinfectants exclusively, whereas six LTCFs used chlorine bleach exclusively, and eight LTCFs used both to disinfect common areas. Seven staff/visitor bathrooms were accessible to residents, and hand washing signage was missing from 10. These results reveal the presence of environmental factors that might facilitate norovirus transmission within LTCFs.

September 2016
September 2016
79.2 | 22-29
Lalani Jayasekara, MS, Cortney M. Leone, MS, Julia Sharp, PhD, Morgan Getty, MS
Additional Topics A to Z: Pathogens and Outbreaks


This article uses township-level mortality registry databases to examine environmental health disparities in Dalian, China, and potential associations with geographic, social, and economic factors. It is the first time that these Chinese databases have been used for research in environmental health. The findings highlight the fact that environmental health risks and benefits of urban development are unequally distributed between urban centers and their suburbs. Consequently, environmental conditions have been drastically degraded in the suburbs. Furthermore, associated death rates and cancer mortality rates (CMR) have increased. A link between high CMR and industrial pollution was discovered through space-time clusters and statistical analyses. In addition, population aging was found to be a factor in understanding the spatial inequalities of cancer and death. This article suggests that Environmental Model Cities should be required to have no negative impact on environmental health in other areas.


January 2021
January/February 2021
83.6 | 30-38
Zhenguo Zhang, Inst. of Geographic Sci & Nat Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences/College of Economics & Mgmt, Dalian Nationalities Univ, Lee Liu, School of Environmental, Physical, and Applied Sciences, University of Central Missouri
Additional Topics A to Z: Environmental Justice


Previous research has suggested differences between public and professional understanding of the field of environmental health (EH) and the role of EH services within urban and rural communities. This study investigated EH priority differences between 1) rural and urban residents and 2) residents and EH professionals, and presents quantitative and qualitative methods for establishing locality-specific EH priorities. Residents (N = 588) and EH professionals (N = 63) in Alabama identified EH priorities via a phone or online survey. We categorized rurality of participant residences by rural–urban commuting area codes and population density, and tested whether or not EH priorities were different between urban and rural residents. Built environment issues, particularly abandoned houses, and air pollution were high priorities for urban residents—whereas, water and sanitation issues, and paper mill-related pollution were high priorities in rural communities. EH professionals ranked food safety and water and sanitation issues as higher priorities than residents did. Results highlight the importance of urbanicity on environmental risk perception and the utility of simple and inexpensive engagement methods for understanding these differences. Differences between residents and EH professionals suggest improving stakeholder participation in local-level EH decision making might lead to greater awareness of EH services, which might in turn improve support and effectiveness of those services

December 2017
December 2017
80.5 | 28-36
Connor Y.H. Wu, PhD, Department of Population Health Sciences, Virginia–Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Mary B. Evans, MA, Center for the Study of Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Paul E. Wolff, Survey Research Unit, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Julia M. Gohlke, PhD, Department of Population Health Sciences, Virginia–Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech