Vector Type
Mosquito
Vector Species Name
Genus Anopheles
Vector Common Name
Malaria Mosquitoes

Vector Information

Anopheles is a genus of mosquitoes found throughout the world comprised of over 460 individual species. Three species are common in the United States: the eastern An. quadrimaculatus, western An. freeborni, and far southwestern An. pseudopunctipennis. Anopheles lay their eggs in unpolluted flowing and stagnant waters such as marshes, streams, agricultural ponds, used tires, clogged gutters, and poorly maintained water features. A typical Anopheles breeding cycle (from egg, to larvae, to adult) takes two to four weeks at average temperatures. The primary vector of malaria worldwide, the disease was eliminated from Anopheles population in the United State in the mid 20th century. Though most US malaria cases are exhibited in recent travelers, small numbers of locally transmitted cases persist. Ninety seven such cases occurred between 1963 and 2015. Found in a variety of habitats,  The breeding cycle (egg, larvae, pupae, adult) of Anopheles takes approximately two to four weeks depending on temperature. Fertilized females overwinter in covered areas such as basements, sheds, caves, and culverts. They are easily distinguished from other mosquitoes by palpi as long as their proboscis. most species of Anopheles will feed on humans if necessary. They are most active during dawn and dusk hours. This genus is the primary vector of malaria worldwide, but their capacity to transmit malaria in the United States has been limited by improvements in living standards and changes in land use. Most US malaria cases are exhibited in recent travelers, but small numbers of locally transmitted cases persist. Ninety seven such cases occurred between 1963 and 2015.

Found In
AL
AK
AZ
AR
CA
CO
CT
DE
FL
GA
HI
ID
IL
IN
IA
KS
KY
LA
ME
MD
MA
MI
MN
MS
MO
MT
NE
NV
NH
NJ
NM
NY
NC
ND
OH
OK
OR
PA
RI
SC
SD
TN
TX
UT
VT
VA
WA
WV
WI
WY
DC

*Disease transmission varies locally. This map depicts where vectors can be found geographically and provides information about diseases these vectors might carry. Vectors might be present in a state or locality, however, and not be carriers of any particular disease. In addition, identified vectors may have a presence in a state, but may not be found throughout that state.